Macronutrients is a type of nutrient like micronutrient are composed in larger quantities and provide energy in the form of calories and help in the growth and development of human body macronutrients are divided into carbohydrates proteins and fats and oils
Carbohydrate is a macronutrient. carbohydrate provide energy and constituted the bulk of the human died the main use of carbohydrates in the body is to provide energy for breathing movement and keeping warm some starch and sugar is changed to body fat
Classification and sources
Carbohydrates exist in the form of monosaccharide, for example, glucose or disaccharides, for example, lactose and sucrose and polysaccharides such as starch for cellulose mono and test ride a SIM hello present in fruit milk table sugar sweets sector of polysaccharides are the complex carbohydrates and are found in red serials Rise of the and starchy vegetables like a potato.
Fiber is the indigestible part of the plant food that pushes through our digestive system absorbing water along the way and easing bowel movements fiber makes feces of and bulky and absorbs harmful Chemicals and so helps to keep the gut healthy.
It slows digestion and facilitates the absorption of nutrients in the meals and helps to prevent obesity fiber is of two types soluble and insoluble:
Soluble fiber it attracts water and forms a gel which slows down the digestion and is also beneficial for insulin sensitivity which helps in controlling diabetes soluble fiber can also help in lowering the bad cholesterol levels by interfering with the absorption of dietary cholesterol. It also binds to bile acids in the intestine and prevents there re-absorption in the body the source of soluble fiber includes fruits like Apple, peace, beans.
It adds bulk to the diet and has a laxative effect considered beneficial for the prevention of constipation it does not dissolve in water and passes intact through the digestive system speeding up the passage of food and waste materials the source include valve eat a whole range of wheat Bran seeds nuts brown rice green beans and skin of fruits.
Carbohydrates are converted into glucose and other monosaccharides in the presence of digestive enzymes which are then absorbed into the blood insulin help in the uptake of these simple sugars by the cells where they are metabolized to carbon dioxide and water along with the release of energy.
Excessive Consumption of carbohydrates
When too much carbohydrate is consumed and not used for energy over an extended period of time. of time road and building of too much fat increase body weight dental caries are also associated with excessive consumption of Carbohydrates teach should we brush twice a day and foods high in sugar may be eaten with rather than in-between snacks to prevent dental caries
Lack of carbohydrates
the short term effects weight loss and lethargy while long term affects deficiency diseases like Core and marasmus which are associated with the deficiency of protein and calories in the diet respectively.
Protein is required for growth and development of the body when carbohydrates are not providing appropriate a mouth the proteins burn and try to eat the energy requirements proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more change of amino acids the key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen to other elements are found in the site change the nutritional classification divide them into
- · Essential amino acids
- · Non-essential amino acids
Essential amino acids
Essential amino acids are those which cannot be synthesized by the body and I needed from the diet namely valine, leucine
Non-essential amino acids
Non-essential amino acids can be synthesized by the body itself life glutamic acid + 3 in some amino acids are conditionally essential through synthesized by the body but at some point during growth and last country that the body is unable to meet the demands and therefore they meet they must be supplied in the diet as serine proline
Proteins obtained from animal sources like meat milk at the sector are complete because they contain balance proportion for this reason they are the best protein sorting from plant sources like beans are incomplete legging a one or more essential amino acids
Proteins are dead justice In the Tribune and shall tract and stabilize to peptides and amino acids 20 amino acids are absorbed into the flight and taken up by the cells were they are utilized for the synthesis of bodily proteins
Function of protein
The following are the function of protein:
Antibodies are specialized proteins involved in defending the body from antigen (foreign invaders).
Contact protein is responsible for movements like actin and myosin these proteins are involved in muscle contraction and movement.
Enzymes facilitate biochemical reactions in the body therefore often referred to as biological catalysts because of the speed of chemical reaction. For example, enzyme lactase and pepsin. Lactase breaks down the sugar lactose found in milk production breakdown proteins.
Hormonal proteins are messengers proteins that help to coordinates an example that regulates our glucose metabolism.
Proteins are fibrous and provide support as carotene collagen and elastin carotene strength and protective covering such as air feeders phones and weak scope collagen and elastin provide support for connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments
Transport proteins are carrier proteins which move molecules from one place to another around the body for example hemoglobin which transports oxygen to the blood
Fats and oils
Fats and oils are dense sources of energy that consists of a wide group of compounds they are generally is soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water at cases are the building blocks of fats pads are solid at room temperature, for example, ghee, butter. Oils exist in liquid form at room temperature, for example, vegetable oils
Some important functions of fatty acids include storage cell membrane structure hormone synthesis bile acid synthesis absorption of fat-soluble vitamin brain and its development and skin and IQ development. fats and oils contain different but fat-nutrients these are saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids including trans-fatty acids and cholesterol.
Saturated fatty acids
Foods containing mail are saturated fatty acids are Butter, Ghee. Cooking fat wall milk is fat from means and needs products and poultry coconut
Unsaturated fatty acids
Unsaturated fatty acids can be obtained from vegetable oil, sunflower seeds and oily fish to of the unsaturated fatty acids are called essential fatty acids because the body cannot be synthesized and these include Omega 3 and Omega-6 fatty acid land to be beneficial for health.
Tran’s fatty acids
When vegetable oils are prepared to make them harder some of the unsaturated fatty acids are changed into Trans fatty acid. These behave like saturated fatty acids but can have adverse health effects we should eat as little of the foods containing trans-fatty acids as possible trans fatty acids may be found fried foods baked goods biscuits Cakes and ice cream.
Cholesterol is found only in animal foods but the body can make it from others and nutrients we need this cholesterol for our body to grow and function properly it is for the most of the steroid for most like estrogen.
Good Cholesterol (HDL)
High levels of good close all seem to reduce the risk of heart disease eating food containing mainly unsaturated fatty acids tend to increase the level of good cholesterol it is found in certain fish like Salmon and cod
Bad cholesterol (LDL)
High levels of bad Cholesterol seem to increase the risk of heart disease eating food containing mainly saturated fatty acids tend to increase the level of that it is found in animal fat coconut oil palm oil and butter.
But needs are expressed as a percent of total energy needs the percent of Total energy that should come from fat in a healthy balanced diet is 15-30 children and at all since part of the fat in the diet is not added in the kitchen at home But consider in food such a sweet milk and oil fields as well as in fried foods rich in unsaturated fatty acids are better for health.