What is heart failure? How to prevent heart failure?

Heart failure means that the heart is not pumping as it should. It doesn’t mean the heart stops, but rather, that over time it loses pumping function, causing fatigue and shortness of breath

Heart failure (HF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF) and congestive cardiac failure (CCF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficient amount of blood to maintain blood flow to meet the body’s needs

Stages of Heart Failure.

There are 4 stages of heart failure that are described below:

1st Stage Of heart failure(mild):

In the first stage of heart failure, ordinary physical activity does not cause dyspnea (shortness of breath) fatigue(extreme tiredness ) or palpitation(irregular heartbeat due to illness)

Heart failure begins with the left side, specifically the left ventricle (heart’s main pumping chamber). Fluid(a substance that can flow easily) may back up in your lungs, causing shortness of breath(dyspnea). Fluid may back up into your abdomen, legs, and feet, causing swelling.

2nd Stage Of heart failure(mild):

In the second stage of heart failure, we feel comfortable at rest but ordinary physical activity causes dyspnea(shortness of breath), fatigue(extreme tiredness ), or palpitation(irregular heartbeat due to illness).

 People with 2nd stage may have minor symptoms but are still otherwise healthy. People with stage 2 often have existing heart complications but lack definitive symptoms of heart failure. Doctors may recommend that these people reduce their workload and make lifestyle changes.

3rd Stage Of heart failure(mild):

In the third stage of heart failure, we feel comfortable at rest less than ordinary activity causes dyspnea(shortness of breath), fatigue(extreme tiredness ), or palpitation(irregular heartbeat due to illness).

People with 3rd stage may experience symptoms regularly and may not be able to do their regular tasks, especially if they have other health conditions.

4th Stage Of heart failure(severe):

In the fourth stage of heart failure, we feel uncomfortable at rest unable to carry out any physical activity without discomfort.

 A person with 4th stage of heart failure may have severe or debilitating symptoms throughout the day, even while at rest.

Causes Of heart failure:

The causes of heart failure includes

  • Cardiomyopathy (a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for your heart to pump blood to the rest of your body)
  • Congenital heart attack(a problem with the structure of the heart. It is present at birth)
  • Heart valve diseases (Aortic stenosis )
  • Certain types of arrhythmias(is a problem when the heart beats too quickly)
  • Emphysema(lung condition that causes shortness of breath)
  • HIV(human immunodeficiency virus -is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection)
  • AIDS(interferes your body’s ability to fight infection and disease)
  • Severe forms of anemia( a condition in which a body lacks enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your body’s tissues.)
  • Chemotherapy(a drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill fast-growing cells in your body.
  • High blood pressure
  • Emphysema(a lung condition that causes shortness of breath)
  • An overactive or underactive thyroid(a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of your neck just below Adam’s apple. It’s part of an intricate network of glands called the endocrine system. The endocrine system is responsible for coordinating many of your body’s activities.)
  • Drug or alcohol

Symptoms Of Heart Failure :

The Symptoms of Heart Failure includes

  • Chest pain if your heart failure is caused by a heart attack.
  • Sudden, severe shortness of breath and coughing up pink, foamy mucus
  • Difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness
  • Lack of appetite and nausea
  • Very rapid weight gain from fluid retention
  • Swelling of your abdomen (ascites)
  • Increased need to urinate at night
  • Persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged phlegm
  • Reduced ability to exercise

Treatment Of Heart Failure :

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors

Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors are a class of medication used primarily for the treatment of high blood pressure and heart failure. They work by causing relaxation of blood vessels as well as a decrease in blood volume, which leads to lower blood pressure and decreased oxygen demand from the heart (Wikipedia).

  • Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers

Angiotensin II receptor blockers, formally angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin II receptor antagonists(Wikipedia).

  • Beta-Blockers

Beta-blockers are a class of medications that are predominantly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack after a first heart attack (Wikipedia).

  • Diuretics

A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine. This includes forced diuresis. There are several categories of diuretics. All diuretics increase the excretion of water from bodies, although each class does so in a distinct way (Wikipedia).

  • Aldosterone Antagonists

An antimineralocorticoid , MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug that antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors. This group of drugs is often used as adjunctive therapy, in combination with other drugs, for the management of chronic heart failure(Wikipedia).

  • Inotropes

An inotrope is an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions. Negatively inotropic agents weaken the force of muscular contractions. Positively inotropic agents increase the strength of muscular contraction (Wikipedia).

  • Digoxin

Digoxin, sold under the brand name Lanoxin among others, is a medication used to treat various heart conditions. Most frequently it is used for atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and heart failure. Digoxin is taken by mouth or by injection into a vein (Wikipedia).

Surgeries for heart failure :

  • Coronary Bypass Surgery

This surgery is often performed in people who have angina (chest pain) and coronary artery disease (where plaque has built up in the arteries). During the surgery, a bypass is created by grafting a piece of a vein above and below the blocked area of a coronary artery, enabling blood to flow around the obstruction. Veins are usually taken from the leg, but arteries from the chest or arm may also be used to create a bypass graft.

A patient may undergo one, two, three, or more bypass grafts, depending on how many coronary arteries are blocked. Cardiopulmonary bypass with a pump oxygenator (heart-lung machine) is used for most coronary bypass graft operations. This means that besides the surgeon, other surgical staff members include a cardiac anesthesiologist, surgical nurses, and a perfusionist. (surgery)

  • Mitral Valvuloplasty

Mitral valvuloplasty is a procedure used to treat mitral valve stenosis by increasing the width of the mitral valve opening and restoring normal blood flow. During this procedure, a guidewire is inserted into a vein in the leg and led into the heart. (surgery)

  • Left Valvuloplasty

Surgical valvuloplasty is surgery to repair 1 or more valves in your heart. You may have this procedure if 1 or more valves in your heart don’t work well. They may be scarred, they may leak, or they may not close or open all the way. (surgery)

  • Regeneration Therapy

Regenerative medicine may be defined as the process of replacing or “regenerating” human cells, tissues, or organs to restore or establish normal function. Regenerative Medicine refers to a group of biomedical approaches to clinical therapies that may involve the use of stem cells. (surgery)

Preventions For Heart Failure:

  • Stick to a healthy weight.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Eat fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.
  • Limit bad fats, added sugars, salt, and alcohol.
  • Don’t smoke or use recreational drugs.
  • Reduce your stress.
  • Get enough sleep.
  • Take heart medicines
  • Maintains healthy cholesterol levels
  • Control of diabetes
  • Take high blood pressure seriously

Statistics Of Heart Failure:

  • 17.9 million people die each year from CVDs, an estimated 31% of all deaths worldwide
  • 85% of all CVD deaths are due to heart attacks and strokes.






What are the 4 stages of heart failure?

There are 4 stages of heart failure that are described below:
1st Stage Of heart failure(mild):
In the first stage of heart failure, ordinary physical activity does not cause dyspnea (shortness of breath) fatigue(extreme tiredness ) or palpitation(irregular heartbeat due to illness)
Heart failure begins with the left side, specifically the left ventricle (heart’s main pumping chamber). Fluid(a substance that can flow easily) may back up in your lungs, causing shortness of breath(dyspnea). Fluid may back up into your abdomen, legs, and feet, causing swelling.
2nd Stage Of heart failure(mild):
In the second stage of heart failure, we feel comfortable at rest but ordinary physical activity causes dyspnea(shortness of breath), fatigue(extreme tiredness ), or palpitation(irregular heartbeat due to illness).
 People with 2nd stage may have minor symptoms but are still otherwise healthy. People with stage 2 often have existing heart complications but lack definitive symptoms of heart failure. Doctors may recommend that these people reduce their workload and make lifestyle changes.
3rd Stage Of heart failure(mild):
In the third stage of heart failure, we feel comfortable at rest less than ordinary activity causes dyspnea(shortness of breath), fatigue(extreme tiredness ), or palpitation(irregular heartbeat due to illness).
People with 3rd stage may experience symptoms regularly and may not be able to do their regular tasks, especially if they have other health conditions.
4th Stage Of heart failure(severe):
In the fourth stage of heart failure, we feel uncomfortable at rest unable to carry out any physical activity without discomfort.
 A person with 4th stage of heart failure may have severe or debilitating symptoms throughout the day, even while at rest.

What is the main cause of heart failure?

The causes of heart failure includes
Cardiomyopathy (a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for your heart to pump blood to the rest of your body)
Congenital heart attack(a problem with the structure of the heart. It is present at birth)
Heart valve diseases (Aortic stenosis )
Certain types of arrhythmiyas(is a problem when the heart beats too quickly)
Emphysema(lung condition that causes shortness of breath)
HIV(human immunodeficiency virus -is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection)
AIDS(interferes your body’s ability to fight infection and disease)
Severe forms of anemia( a condition in which a body lacks enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your body’s tissues.)
Chemotherapy(a drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill fast-growing cells in your body.
High blood pressure
Emphysema(a lung condition that causes shortness of breath)
An overactive or under active thyroid(a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of your neck just below Adam’s apple. It’s part of an intricate network of glands called the endocrine system. The endocrine system is responsible for coordinating many of your body’s activities.)
Drug or alcohol

If we take Healthy Foods i.e. Nutrients (including micronutrientsmacronutrients, and minerals) and be physically fit hen there are low chances to get this disease. We should follow the Food Pyramid.

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